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Delamination in Concrete Floors

Hearing a hollow sound in your concrete floor? Or while tapping your floor, you discover more such empty, loud rings?

Well, your concrete floor could be facing the common yet serious problem of delamination. A problem that’s audible even before it becomes visible.

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Delamination is the detachment of a surface layer (top wear layer) due to the various technical reasons, including but not limited the ill-timing of hardener broadcasting, mix design issues or final trowel finishing process, which must only be started at an appropriate stage while the concrete is still green.

It is troweling that compresses and lessens the penetration of the surface layer of the concrete floor. If it’s done ahead of time, bleed water or air can be trapped below the cemented surface layer forming blisters that delaminate the surface.

From our pouring experience of over a decade, we suggest to tackle such problem with a few noteworthy points that helped us overcome this situation and counter it successfully:

Delamination in Concrete Floors

How to reduce the risk of delamination: 

1. Uniformity of placement

To ensure uniformity, a uniform and approved mix design (from a specialist) from a single or similar concrete batch, delivered at regular intervals, is essential.

*Any add-on admixtures that will delay the final finishing time too much must be avoided.

*The sub base must be impermeable, free of cuts and tears to prevent the escape of moisture resulting in uneven bleed.

*Do not rely on the final finishing to achieve the perfect level of flatness and levelness in the concrete floor

*There must be a uniform placement pattern so that there are no drastic setting time differences.

2. Surface evaporation rate

*Varied weather conditions, vary the rate of evaporation and cause uneven drying of the concrete and premature crusting of the surface.

*Extra care must be taken when surrounding evaporative conditions are high and exceed concrete bleeding rates.

*Evaporation retarders should be used in approved dosage it is must to erect windbreaks, at least 3M above a slab, if working in a un-cladded box area or open area.

3. Final Finishing

*There should be meticulous planning and execution by trained and accomplished experts during the finishing process of the concrete floor, in a way, that concrete is not finished prematurely but simultaneously after concrete placement.

*The finishing floating should be delayed as much as practically possible. A 3mm deep boot imprint in the concrete surface is usually the correct time to begin floating.

*The use of water must be avoided to speed up the process or to keep the surface workable as it may lead to crazing cracks as it affects the water cement ratio of top surface.

*Slab should not be put to use until completion of approved period as per the structural load design sheet and should be cured well, preferably covered with high-density plastic sheet.

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Crazing

Crazing, a network pattern of fine cracks that do not penetrate much below the surface, is caused by minor surface shrinkage.

Crazing cracks are very fine and barely visible except when the concrete is drying after the surface has been wet. The cracks encompass small concrete areas less than 50 mm (2 in.) in dimension, forming a chicken-wire pattern. The term “map cracking” is often used to refer to cracks that are similar to crazing cracks only more visible and surrounding larger areas of concrete. Although crazing cracks may be unsightly and can collect dirt, crazing is not structurally serious and does not ordinarily indicate the start of future deterioration.

crazing

When concrete is just beginning to gain strength, the climatic conditions, particularly the relative humidity during the drying period in a wetting and drying cycle, are an important cause of crazing. Low humidity, high air temperature, hot sun, or drying wind, either separately or in any combination, can cause rapid surface drying that encourages crazing. A surface into which dry cement has been cast to hasten drying and finishing will be more subject to crazing. The conditions that contribute to dusting, as described below, also will increase the tendency to craze.

To prevent crazing, curing procedures should begin early, within minutes after final finishing when weather conditions warrant. When the temperature is high and the sun is out, some method of curing with water should be used, since this will stop rapid drying and lower the surface temperature. The concrete should be protected against rapid changes in temperature and moisture wherever feasible.

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Concrete Flooring : The most versatile flooring option in India

Concrete flooring is a massive growing trend and its roots are spreading in the flooring market in warehouse, retail, and decorative facilities across India & the globe.

Concrete flooring has transformed more than any other concrete trade in the last decade. From conquering the industrial flooring type into the architectural and retail world.

It’s myriad features such as durability, strength, value for money, sustainability make it the new acceptable standard in commercial and industrial flooring

Concrete flooring has graced the space in high-visibility and high-traffic commercial spaces, such as retail stores, restaurants and salons. The better substitute for wood, vinyl tile, and carpet.

Concrete Flooring The most versatile flooring option in India

Concrete’s ability to take pressure and wear and tear is much more than most flooring materials. Add to it, versatility that allows it to be customized to suit any spectrum, is what sets it apart.

Concrete Floors are best suited for high-traffic retail facilities because of their durability and design versatility. Concrete flooring stands for durability, abrasion resistance and low maintenance.

 

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Concrete Polishing Benefits

From ordinary concrete floors, you can make a very interesting, inexpensive and durable flooring that holds permanently by concrete polishing . Even when renovating the floor, sanding and polishing can be a way of repairing a concrete floor in need of renovation.

Polish Concrete Floor

In commercial buildings, exposed concrete is often planned from the outset as a very durable and durable floor covering. Another floor covering is not necessary.During production, care is also taken to ensure that the surface is a bit smoother.

An ordinary concrete floor can also be used as a floor covering, if you grind it first, and then polished to shine. Of fair-faced concrete then distinguishes him only the "ordinary" optics.

Ground concrete floor as a stylistic device

When it comes to obtaining the most discreet and deliberately sober-looking floor covering, a sanded concrete floor is very suitable. In the interior, this can also be a ground screed.

The floor is then very resistant to abrasion, has an interesting, but very subtle look due to the not quite uniform surface, and does not require baseboards.

Concrete structure

For concrete, rock aggregate with a maximum grain size of 16 mm is generally used. When grinding and subsequent polishing of the concrete, the enclosed stone parts become visible and form an active, completely individual surface.

That makes the visual appeal of a polished concrete floor. He does not look the same at any point and is thus alive. Nevertheless, the look is subtle.

Advantages of the Polishing a Concrete Floor

Grinding and polishing a concrete floor and then use it as a floor covering has many benefits:

  • The production of the floor is extremely inexpensive;
  • the durable floor covering does not need to be replaced anymore and lasts permanently;
  • you have a very resilient and abrasion-resistant floor;
  • The floor looks very discreet;
  • Grinding and polishing of floor can be done immediately after curing (no waiting time such as when laying tiles);
  • Due to the possible omission of baseboards, a more balanced appearance is created when passing between wall and floor.

Concrete floors can get damaged over time. The elimination of these damages often succeeds only with grinding . This also prevents water or dirt from penetrating into the damaged floor and further or more deeply damaging the concrete floor.

The sanded concrete floor can then be ground even further, and then polished up. He gets so again a new look.

Protection and Sealing

To permanently protect a polished concrete floor, a seal is recommended. There are different products in the trade. It is recommended to use two-component products.

They consist of a hardener and a protective seal. The hardener penetrates deep into the concrete, compacts and hardens it also. This ensures even greater hardness, tightness, and resistance of the concrete.

The coating then prevents abrasion, dirt and surface damage caused by the use of the soil in everyday life. The danger of slipping by individual products should always be considered, especially in wet areas.

Contact Us for any concrete Service.

Concrete Polishing Benefits

 

From ordinary concrete floors, you can make a very interesting, inexpensive and durable flooring that holds permanently by concrete polishing . Even when renovating the floor, sanding and polishing can be a way of repairing a concrete floor in need of renovation.

Polish Concrete Floor

In commercial buildings, exposed concrete is often planned from the outset as a very durable and durable floor covering. Another floor covering is not necessary.During production, care is also taken to ensure that the surface is a bit smoother.

An ordinary concrete floor can also be used as a floor covering, if you grind it first, and then polished to shine. Of fair-faced concrete then distinguishes him only the "ordinary" optics.

Ground concrete floor as a stylistic device

When it comes to obtaining the most discreet and deliberately sober-looking floor covering, a sanded concrete floor is very suitable. In the interior, this can also be a ground screed.

The floor is then very resistant to abrasion, has an interesting, but very subtle look due to the not quite uniform surface, and does not require baseboards.

Concrete structure

For concrete, rock aggregate with a maximum grain size of 16 mm is generally used. When grinding and subsequent polishing of the concrete, the enclosed stone parts become visible and form an active, completely individual surface.

That makes the visual appeal of a polished concrete floor. He does not look the same at any point and is thus alive. Nevertheless, the look is subtle.

Advantages of the Polishing a Concrete Floor

Grinding and polishing a concrete floor and then use it as a floor covering has many benefits:

  • The production of the floor is extremely inexpensive;
  • the durable floor covering does not need to be replaced anymore and lasts permanently;
  • you have a very resilient and abrasion-resistant floor;
  • The floor looks very discreet;
  • Grinding and polishing of floor can be done immediately after curing (no waiting time such as when laying tiles);
  • Due to the possible omission of baseboards, a more balanced appearance is created when passing between wall and floor.

Concrete floors can get damaged over time. The elimination of these damages often succeeds only with grinding . This also prevents water or dirt from penetrating into the damaged floor and further or more deeply damaging the concrete floor.

The sanded concrete floor can then be ground even further, and then polished up. He gets so again a new look.

Protection and Sealing

To permanently protect a polished concrete floor, a seal is recommended. There are different products in the trade. It is recommended to use two-component products.

They consist of a hardener and a protective seal. The hardener penetrates deep into the concrete, compacts and hardens it also. This ensures even greater hardness, tightness, and resistance of the concrete.

The coating then prevents abrasion, dirt and surface damage caused by the use of the soil in everyday life. The danger of slipping by individual products should always be considered, especially in wet areas.

Contact Us for any concrete Service.

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Superflat flooring in India

Now Introducing superflat Concrete floors in India which will facilitate smooth and quick VNA (very narrow isle) movement within your warehouses and factories.

  Superflat flooring in India

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Preventing Concrete Cracks

 

Preventing Concrete Cracks
“WHY CONCRETE CRACK”

Poorly compacted or prepared sub-grade:

Excavations beneath the slabthat are not to be filled with concrete (usually plumbing or other mechanical trenches) should be brought back to grade in compacted lifts. This means a 24" (60 cm) trench would be back filled 6" (15 cm) at a time, each "lift" being mechanically vibrated so it is left compact. If these excavations are not compacted when backfilled, this loose soil will settle over time leaving the concrete over that area with no earth under it. This becomes a prime place for concrete to settle and crack.

Excess water in the mix:

Concrete requires very little water to hydrate properly.Typically concrete flat work is poured with toomuch water. For every pound (or kilogram or any unit of weight of cement, about 0.25 pounds (or 0.25 kg or corresponding unit) of water is needed to fully complete the hydration reactions. This requires a water-cement ratio of 1:4often given as a proportion: 0.25. However, a mix with a w/cratio of 0.25 may not mix thoroughly, and may not flow wellenough to be placed, so more water is used than is technically necessary to react with the cement. More typical water-cement ratios of 0.4 to 0.6 are used.

Rapid Drying of the concrete:

Water that is not consumed by the hydration reaction may leave the concrete as it hardens, resulting in microscopicpores that will reduce the final strength of the concrete.Concrete slabs can shrink as much as 1/2 inch per 100 feet (1.5cm per 30 meters). This shrinkage causes forces in the concrete which literally pull the slab apart. Cracks are the end result of these forces. Rapid drying of the slab significantly increases the possibility of cracking.The chemical reaction, which causesconcrete to go from the liquid or plastic state to a solid state, requires water. This chemical reaction, or hydration, continues to occur for days and weeks after the concrete ispoured.

Improper strength concrete poured on the job:

Concrete is available in many different strengths. Verify what strength the concrete you are pouring should be poured at.

(Example)

4000 psi concrete with air - Cold weather mix
3000 psi concrete no air - warm weather mix

Lack of control joints:

Control joints are planned cracks – Control joints allow for movement and proper cracking. Temperature change and poor sub base preparation contribute to slab movement. When the concrete cracks, we want to have an active role in deciding where it will crack and that it will crack in a straight line instead of randomly. Control joints can be cut at the time of placement or the next day with a diamond saw blade. (When installing decorative concrete work saw cuts are preferred over hand tooled joints).

 

 

 
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Concrete Joint types

 

 

Concrete Joint types

  • Freshly placed concrete is always prone to cracking off inside corners.
  • Spacing Recommendations no more that 2-3 times the size in inches
  • 4 inch thick slab need joints that are 8-12 feet on center
  • 2” slab = 4 to 6 foot joints
  • 5 cm slab = 2 meter squared joints
  • 4” slab = 8 to 12 foot joints
  • 10 cm, slab = 3.5 meter squared joints
  • 6” slab = 12 to 18 foot joints
  • 15 cm slab = 5 meters squared joints

What is the difference between a construction joint, isolation joint and control joints?

CONSTRUCTION JOINT

Joints in concrete pavement are created by forms to end one concrete pour and start another. If a pour is too large to cast at one time, workers set forms to complete the pour and then remove them to join the next placement to the old one. The cleanest way I have ever seen a construction joint placed is by using a small edger (the smallest you can find) on the first pour. This edger will be used to create a slightly rounded edge on the exterior formwork of the slab. From there your next pour will be finished to the existing height of the first pour and not edged. The next morning come back and use a framing chalk line to mark a straight line on the construction joint and saw cut the joint open. This will look like the two slabs were poured at the same time and saw cut later.

ISOLATION JOINT

"Isolation joint" is now the preferred term instead of "expansion joint, "even though you order "expansion joint" at supply houses. The function of these joints is to isolate your work from structures, other pavements, and objects considered to be non-movable. An old concrete guy once told me concrete is not going to get any bigger than at the time of placement, so expansion material is not needed in the body of a placement and is unsightly. Isolation joints provide space for slab movement around perimeters. The joint material should be resistant to deterioration, should be wide enough to extend to the full depth of the placement, and it should be 1/4 inch to 1 inch in thickness.

CONTROL JOINTS

Control joints allow for movement and proper cracking. Temperature change and poor sub base preparation contribute to slab movement. When the concrete cracks,we want to have an active role in deciding where it will crack and that it will crack in a straight line instead of randomly. Control joints can be cut at the time of placement or the next day with a diamond saw blade.

Cut joints deep enough. Cut joints 25% of the depth of the slab. A 4" thick slab should have joints 1" deep if cut the same day. Control joints are cut a minimum of .33 times the concrete thickness if cut the next day.


How to cut joints- Saw cut joints using a diamond blade and high rpm diamond saw. When Saw cutting joints, the concrete should be cured enough as to not ravel or destroy the edges of the saw cut. Hand jointers can be used to tool joints into fresh concrete, but this is not as architecturally pleasing for Decorative Concrete.

 

 

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Concrete Curing Options

 

1. Water Cure

  • Flooded
  • Ponded
  • Mist Sprayed

Water curing is the most effective method for curing concrete. Not the best option for Decorative Concrete work as thismethod is prone to efflorescence causing discoloration. Works well for standard gray concrete, or concrete that will be usedfor polished surfaces.

2. Water Retention Methods

  • Sand
  • Canvas
  • Burlap
  • Straw

Keeping the above stated options continuously wet or damp during the curing period will allow concrete to fully hydrate. Not the best option for Decorative Concrete work as this method is prone toefflorescence causing discoloration. Works well for standard grayconcrete, or concrete that will be used for polished surfaces.

3. Waterproof Plastic Film

Heavy mill plastic Applied as soon as the concrete is hard enough to resist surface damage. Plastic film may cause discoloration of the concrete-do not apply to concrete where appearance is important.

Exception - Plastic over imprinted concrete with Release Powder.

4. Cure / Cure and Seal

Stryenated Acrylic Products (both WB and SB)

The chemical application should be made as soon as the concrete is finished or the day after the concrete is poured and Powder Release is removed.

Cures should meet ASTM standard 1315.

concrete curing option

 

 

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Concrete Polishing

 

Concrete Polishing : Best way to treat concrete surfaces.

'Polished concrete eliminates the need for continually replacing your flooring, making it a value for money proposition' says Parmeet Bhalla Director, BGSB Concrete Solutions Pvt Ltd

Concrete polishing is steadily becoming the preferred choice of those looking for the ultimate no-wax/ epoxy flooring material. Thanks to recent advances in polishing equipment and techniques, concrete floors, both old and new, are attaining high-gloss finish that never needs waxes or coatings. The superior durability and performance of concrete mean that it is not surprising that an increasing number of retail, warehouse, and office facilities are opting for polished concrete flooring.

Almost any concrete slab can be polished, regardless of its age. Moreover, no special acid agents are required in order to prepare the surface. The initial preparation consists of 5 or more steps of surface grinding. This is done in order to achieve a dense surface. Polishing with resin diamond grids subsequently follows this procedure. Additionally, based on specific requirements, lithium based floor hardeners and penetrating surface densifiers are also used for arriving at the right sheen.

Choosing an Applicator

Polishing concrete is a specialized job and therefore, is best done by an experienced applicator. They will ensure that the slurry is kept off your property, ensuring a tidy and clean work area. It is therefore important that you choose an experienced concrete flooring contractor if you are planning a new concrete pour for your factory, warehouse or office facility. One good way to select an experienced applicator/contractor would be to go through referrals. They are one of the honest sources of information that can help you zero in on an experienced applicator/contractor.

Value for Money

Polishing concrete and using lithium based densifiers will actually harden the surface of your concrete floor and not slippery, which makes them the preferred choice for factories, warehouses, offices and residential units globally. Polished concrete eliminates the need for continually replacing your flooring, making it a value for money proposition. There are certain specific steps that are taken in order to ensure that areas such as bath and showers, where high moisture is an issue, the floor is made more slip proof, than any other flooring material. This is done using an impregnated sealer, which through its penetrative action permeates into concrete pours. This in turn results in a scour finish that acts as an anti-slip surface, without compromising on the aesthetics.

Earlier single sealers were being used in the process of polishing concrete. Since the slab tends to hold the cold within, the use of single sealer was often inadequate to address issues related to thermal efficiency of concrete. Today, a combination of three sealers, known as 'sandwich' is used in the process of polished concrete flooring. A penetrating sealer first of all penetrates and seals all the pours. This reduces the phenomenon of temperature rising to the surface. The application of an additional shield coat protects against mechanical damage. The final coat ensures the durability of the flooring, for years to come without removing any of the sealers, while also preserving the sheen of the floor.

About the Author:

Parmeet Bhalla is the Director of BGSB Concrete solutions Pvt Ltd, a leading concrete polishing and toppings service provider in the country. BGSB' office is based in New Delhi and leads BGSB's vision of re-facing floors all over the country. BGSB'S services range from Super flat Flooring, Polished Concrete, stamped concrete, Acid Staining & self level floorings. The company has over the years served hundreds of national and international clients, who without hesitation will endorse the brand, serve qualities at BGSB. The company specializes in all areas of concrete re-surfacing from: restoring, decorating old or new concrete inside and out. Whatever the task may be one can be assured that BGSB will provide the highest service in accordance.

For more on BGSB and its services their senior project manager can be reached at +91 99112-33099 or mail at: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

 

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8 Factors That Cause Cracks In The Concrete

The concrete is essentially a cheap material, easy to maintain and durable when applied correctly in buildings, floors or coating. The material is the result of a mixture of cement, sand, water, and gravel, therefore, although resistant, it is usually subject to the appearance of cracks and cracks, which need to be repaired.

1- Incorrect Preparation

Each type of concrete should be prepared with the correct proportions of the materials: cement, sand, water, and stone crushed stone. Any measurement error can cause the concrete to undergo environmental and structural influences, leading to cracks and cracks - as well as being extremely dangerous especially when used in supporting structures such as pillars and bases.

For countertops, for example, the recipe recommended by experts is 50 kilos of cement, 8 ½ cans of sand, 11 ½ cans of stone and two cans of water - where the can should measure 18 liters.

2 - Infiltration

Leaks in the hydraulic network of a building eventually cause water to penetrate the concrete - which causes corrosion of the iron over time. Thus, cracks and cracks in the material begin to appear, which can even lead to rupture if the necessary repairs are not made. If the concrete is part of the pillars or foundations of a construction, repairs must be provided urgently, with the work of qualified professionals to ensure the safety of the site.

3 - Excess Moisture

Adding more water than recommended when preparing the cement mass and weakening the concrete's resistance can cause the moisture to cause the surface to expand. With this, cracks and cracks appear - in addition to making the application of the concrete irregular, favoring other problems in the construction.

4 - Retraction by Drying

Just as infiltrations and excess moisture can favor the appearance of cracks and cracks in the concrete, the lack of necessary moisture causes so-called drying retraction. This is because by losing moisture, the concrete shrinks and cracks. The error is usually in the preparation of the cement, where the mixture receives less water than the ideal. Another fact to consider is not proper curing of the concrete, which must be watered with abundant water in the first days of life and avoid that the solar exposition or excessive heat of the environment, causes the dryness of the freshly thrown mass in the form.

5 - Failure to Place

Poorly planned buildings and works, where concrete elements are applied and dumped inappropriately, also promote the formation of cracks and cracks in the surface. It is common for concrete to exhibit these problems when used on uneven surfaces of uncompacted soils and wet soils without adequate preparation. Concrete may, for example, begin to crack in the lower, thicker regions where excess weight is impinged and influenced by excessive moisture.

6 - Aggressive Agents

Many corrosive substances can favor the aggression to the concrete, facilitating the formation of cracks and cracks. The use of some products for cleaning can also favor the wear of the concrete, facilitating the appearance of cracks, such as undiluted bleach in water and materials with excess salt or caustic soda. Beach and coastal areas the aggressiveness of the environment with salinity can favor steel corrosion causing the "swelling" of the fittings and the appearance of cracks in the concrete in places with little thickness of concrete cover on the iron armors.

7 - Overloads

The performance of excess weight beyond that planned by the engineer, when designing the building structures project, can cause cracks in the material and risks to the safety of the work. Concrete areas are subject to the loads that produce tensile or compressive forces in both steel and concrete due to the action of loading on the slabs as well as the weight of the elements of the reinforced concrete itself, floor coverings and walls.

On a single-story house built with a cover slab, in any case, the construction of a second floor cannot be added without the engineer responsible for the structure design verifying that the stability of the work is maintained with more overload on the slabs, beams, pillars, and foundations.

The most loaded pillar of a single-story house receives a load of 14 to 16 tons depending on the gaps between pillars and the type of slab. Already in a house with two floors the pillar more loaded will be receiving loads of more than 30 tons in certain situations. And in these cases a work without the necessary reinforcements, the appearance of cracks can evolve rapidly to the collapse of the structure, causing serious risk to the safety of people.

If the goal is to build the second floor in the future, you should already consider second-floor loads in the initial construction of foundations, pillars, beams, and slabs that will support the second floor.

8 - Environmental Stress

Factors such as rains, sunshine, earthquakes and other natural phenomena may favor the wear of the cement and the appearance of cracks and cracks over time. For this reason, the preparation, placement and proper maintenance of concrete are extremely important. Another factor is due to the fatigue of concrete materials adhering to the steel, and that can suffer small deformations over the years, resulting in cracks or cracks.

 

 
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How To Lay A Concrete Floor

concrete floor

 

Due to the fact that concrete floors are capable of withstanding significant loads, their application area is quite large. This type of floor is ideal for industrial facilities (factories, factories, warehouses, vegetable stores, offices, supermarkets, etc.).

 

Also, often a concrete floor is poured into sheds, garages and other economic buildings. The most common is a polished concrete floor, but, for example, in the pig sector demand for slotted concrete floors. If you decide to do it yourself, you just need to carefully study the recommendations on how to properly lay the concrete floor, so that the surface is even, firm and resistant to cracking.

 

Advice

 

When starting concrete flooring, follow these recommendations:



    • if the floor will experience increased loads, then it is necessary to pre-lay the reinforcing frame. For reinforced concrete mesh with insignificant loads;

 

    • for the device of the concrete floor it is necessary to use cement of mark not lower than M300.



Note! After the ramming process, the thickness of the concrete floor should be approximately 12 cm.

 

Laying The Concrete Floor

 

1.Fill The Concrete Floor

 

 

Next, we will consistently consider the stages of manufacturing the concrete floor.

 

2.Leveling

 

Leveling of the base is carried out, as a rule, using a laser or optical level. With its help, you will have to determine the relief of the base, the level of the floor surface and the zero mark.

 

3.Substrate Preparation

 

In the case of a ground base, you need:



    • Tire the soil so that the floor does not crack over time.

 

    • Lay a sandy "pillow" on top of the compacted soil. To achieve the required density, sand should be laid on 25% more than the calculated layer. Pillow must be poured with water and compacted with a roller.



If the room already has a concrete foundation, then you need:



    • Thoroughly clean the entire surface of the floor base.

 

    • Fill existing cracks with sand-cement mixture or polymer.

 

    • The resulting dust and debris should be removed with a



4.Waterproofing

 

As a waterproofing of the floor surface, a roll bituminous material or a polyethylene film is often used. Waterproofing helps prevent capillary penetration of ground moisture. The area of the film should be larger than the floor area.

 

5.Installation of Formwork

 

For a concrete floor covering of a large area, you should break the surface into rectangles of special sizes (maps). The size of a particular rectangle is determined by yourself since it depends on the forthcoming amount of work during the working day. On the perimeter of the rectangle, set the wooden formwork - so that the filled concrete is within the necessary limits before solidification.

 

6.Reinforcement

 

Reinforcement is necessary to provide high-strength characteristics to the concrete floor. A reinforced mesh with a mesh size of 150 × 150 mm is usually used.

 

Note! For the manufacture of the concrete floor, withstand more powerful loads, instead of a grid reinforcing cage is used.

 

7.Filling The Mixture

 

Concrete flooring Concrete mix (1 part cement + 2 parts building sand + 4 parts gravel + 0.4 parts water) is easily mixed with a concrete mixer, which can be rented for a while. The finished concrete mix has a short lifespan, so use it quickly.

 

Note! The time of pouring the concrete with a card should be without interruption.

 

When pouring small areas, carefully level the concrete on the surface and compact with a special vibrator to the level of installed beacons (stretched cords).

 

And before starting the filling of large rooms, you will need to set the guides at the zero level. Then, on the rails, install the screed. Pour concrete should be slightly above the level of the screed. After filling the screed, pull the guide rails, while leveling and compacting the concrete cover.

 

After 2-3 weeks, consider that your concrete floor is ready. It completely hardens and recovers its maximum strength properties.

 

Polished Concrete Floors

 

In many offices and supermarkets, they arrange spectacular polished concrete floors that look beautiful. In addition, they are practical, durable and require little maintenance, which significantly reduces the cost of their maintenance and restoration. In the manufacture of polished concrete floors , more steps are required: grinding concrete (rough processing), impregnating (cementing with chemical composition) of the concrete surface and polishing the floor.

 

Concrete floor, manufactured by all the rules, will have high resistance to mechanical stress and wear.

 
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Importance Of Concrete Warehouse Flooring

b2ap3_thumbnail_warehouse-flooring.jpg

Concrete floors are most in demand for equipping warehouses, regardless of whether the floor is being filled or the concrete layer will be finished. ConcreteWarehouse Floors are one of the most important elements of a warehouse complex. They experience huge loads, a hard abrasive, mechanical, impact, constantly subject to the influence of chemical elements and temperature changes.

Why Warehouse Flooring Is Important

The warehouse floors are subject to increased requirements. Warehouse Flooring should be:

  • Resistant to abrasive abrasion: one of the main factors in the destruction of storage floors.
  • Resistant to Mechanical Stress:Warehouses often move transport, so the floor covering must have improved characteristics to withstand shear stresses. The same property should have floors in the garages.
  • Resistant to Impact:Heavy objects can fall on the floors. In this case, the monolithic coating should not be violated.
  • Possessing Chemical Resistance:Warehouse floors in the chemical industry are subject to the influence of aggressive liquids: solvents, paints, acids, etc.
  • Insensitive to temperature changes:Industrial floors in factories, where elevated temperatures are used with frequent changes, are often violated prematurely. Particularly relevant, additional reinforcement of the base is for storage facilities with access to the street, freezers and refrigerators;
  • Impermeable to Liquids:To ensure that the floors in warehouses are not adversely affected by frequent wet cleanings, and the soil through which no environmentally hazardous substance has penetrated, the coating must not allow liquid to pass through.
  • Non-slippery:Both in dry and wet conditions, to ensure the safety of transport and pedestrians.
  • Fireproof and durable : To ensure the safety of the goods or raw materials stored in the storage room.

This is why when installing industrial floors for a warehouse, it is necessary to take into account operational requirements, load distribution parameters, and other factors. Do not miss any of these nuances and find the best option for the device flooring will help specialists of the company Prom-Floor.

Concrete floors for warehouse

The optimal solution for the warehouse are concrete floors with micro topping, and for rooms with overloads - using metalized topping. They are resistant to abrasion, shock, dynamic loads. Such floors are cheaper than polymer ones. In addition, modern technology like concrete polishing allows you to give concrete coverings an attractive appearance if required by the purpose of the room.

As a basement concrete floors for a warehouse, it is necessary to arrange for the use of reinforcement and fillers from expanded clay and rubble. Such a foundation will be reliable and durable.

 

 

 
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How To Polish Concrete Floor By Hand - Step By Step

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The rough concrete surface becomes dirty and breaks down much faster than polished. In addition, from an aesthetic point of view, polished concrete looks much more attractive. Polishing concrete can be done by own hands, which will greatly improve its aesthetic qualities and performance. After grinding, the floor can be laid on concrete or its surface can remain open.

Preparatory stages of work

To obtain the desired result, it is necessary to perform surface preparation (milling) and grinding. The main tasks of milling are cutting off the hillocks on the surface, removing the influxes, opening the pores. Also during this process, grinding of the upper layer is carried out.

Milling is performed in several approaches. To solve each of the tasks set, a special tool is used. Milling allows you to eliminate any surface defects. However, if there are wave surges on the surface, then a new concrete layer will be poured.

Milling is performed by a milling machine equipped with segments of carbide materials. After processing by this equipment, deep grooves remain on the floor.

Grinding can eliminate small surface irregularities. For these purposes, a grinder is used with segments on which diamond or corundum spraying is applied. To perform further polishing, it is necessary to remove so-called cement milk. Otherwise, this coating will prevent the penetration of the coating into the concrete.

Which cutting segment will be used, is selected depending on the brand of concrete. For grade M250 and below, corundum cutting parts are optimal, for concrete of higher grades it is recommended to use diamond ones.

Milling and grinding are performed on dry concrete. If the surface is moistened, the wet waste will clog the equipment and complicate the friction. If the machine is additionally connected to an industrial vacuum cleaner, the process will be greatly facilitated. After grinding, remove all dust from the surface.

Polishing of concrete surface With Hands: Steps

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To perform the polishing of concrete with hands, one must adhere to a certain order of actions:

  1. First of all, milling is carried out in the presence of significant defects in size or paintwork residue.
  2. On the surface, mastic is applied on the basis of epoxy resin to eliminate potholes, cracks and other similar defects. As a result, it is necessary to achieve a state of the surface in which the grinder will not cling to irregularities and will move along the surface easily.
  3. Coarse grinding is performed using diamond discs. If there are no significant defects, you can start from this stage and do not perform milling.
  4. From the floor, all kinds of pollution, waste, and dust are eliminated.
  5. A hardener is applied to the floor, which gives hardness and additional strength to the surface.
  6. After hardening of the applied composition, grinding is performed with discs of grain size from 400.
  7. Finishing sanding of concrete is done with discs of granularity of 1500-3000.

You can also contact our BGSB Concrete Floor Polishing Experts who have decades of experience in polishing concrete by clicking here

 

 
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Types of Industrial Flooring

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Industrial Flooring is in great demand and we can broadly classify these floors based on material used. Here are various types ofIndustrial Floors.

Concrete floors

This is one of the most common types of Industrial flooring , which often serves as a base for the functionality of all other types of coatings. It is the strength, evenness, and reliability of concrete floors that determine the operational characteristics of future floors, made on their basis.

Paint floors

The surface layer is a thin layer coating with a thickness of about 0.3 mm, which protects the concrete, metal or cement-polymer floor from the effects of water, chemically aggressive media and dusting. The polymer coating of the surface layer is excellent for decorating floors, as well as for compliance with hygienic and sanitary standards. However, such floors are quite sensitive to high mechanical loads, in addition, the quality of the base (strength, evenness, and absence of cracks) is of particular importance, since it determines the operational properties of the floor as a whole.

Self-leveling floors

As a rule, they have a smooth, smooth matte surface, well suited for decoration. Depending on the thickness, the filling floors can smooth out not very significant defects in the substrate, provide high resistance to aggressive media, as well as abrasion and water. Such floors are recommended for use in premises with low mechanical loads and strict sanitary and hygienic requirements (laboratories, assembly shops of the electronic industry).

Highly filled floors

They are a mixture of methyl methacrylic or epoxy resin binder with colored rounded or chipped quartz sand in a ratio (resin/sand) from 1/3 to 1/6. Highly filled floors provide the highest resistance to virtually all chemical and physical types of impacts while retaining the possibility of decorative design. Highly filled floors can smooth out most of the defects in the base, they are perfectly suitable for operation under the most unfavorable conditions, which makes it possible to use them in places of intensive traffic, people, laboratories, and chemical plants. One of the main advantages of such floors is a complete readiness for use within 2 hours after application.

Hardened floors

High-tech floors, for the creation of which one of the most modern technologies is used - Tremix. In the upper layer of concrete at the concreting stage, dry hardeners are introduced, representing a mixture of high-strength Portland cement, hard wear-resistant fillers of various fractions and various additives. If desired, color hardeners, which include mineral or synthetic pigments, can be used to decorate the floor.

Fibro-concrete screeds

A new European technology based on the use of fiber-reinforced concrete - a composite material including a cement-sand mixture, a polymer emulsion, and a uniformly distributed fibril polymer binder. Disperse fiber brewing of a concrete mixture in combination with polymer additives and a small amount of water can improve the performance of concrete, compensate for its main disadvantages: brittleness, low tensile strength, and shrinkage during "ripening" of concrete.

Magnesian floors

The basis for such floors is a magnesian bischofite (a natural mineral, the main component of which is magnesium chloride) with the addition of marble, granite, and other fillers. Magnesian floors are highly resistant to various kinds of mechanical influences, and in combination with varnishes, resistance to water and various chemical compounds is formed. The application of lacquer on the magnesian floor creates a glossy or matte surface, which allows for high-quality decoration. Magnesian floors do not require the provision of special shrinkage joints, since they do not give shrinkage upon solidification, which results in the absence of cracks. Due to the considerable thickness (20-40 mm), such floors can smooth the defects of the base.

Asphalt-concrete floors

Are made on the basis of a mixture of mineral (crushed stone, sand, finely mined mineral powder) and organic (bitumen, tar) components. After curing, the resulting floors are characterized by excellent endurance to both static and dynamic loads, so they are most often used in garage complexes and industrial buildings.

 

 
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Characteristics of Industrial Warehouse Flooring

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Industrial floors for a warehouse factories should provide both general performance characteristics: resistance to mechanical stress, dust, hygiene; and unique performance properties of the floor for various purposes.

 

The modern warehouse occupies an essential place in the structure of organizations. The protection of the concrete floor of the industrial floor in the warehouse prevents its premature destruction, reduces maintenance costs, thereby improving the performance of the industrial floor.

 

The choice of industrial flooring can be evaluated on the basis of basic requirements for warehouse floors:

 

1. Resistance to Mechanical Stress

 

Stability of industrial floors for the warehouse from abrasive wear is important. Abrasive wear (abrasion) occurs during the movement of goods and equipment, traffic, equipment and people in the warehouse. Abrasion is one of the main reasons for the destruction of industrial floors in a warehouse.

 

The use of machines for packaging and transportation, unloading/loading led to an increase in the weight of individual units of cargo, which led to an increase in the loads per unit floor area for the warehouse. This increased the risk of destruction of the concrete floor. Therefore, increasing the resistance to mechanical stress plays an important role in protecting the floor of the warehouse.

 

During work in the warehouse, there is always a risk of falling of various heavy items and equipment, containers and solid packaging elements. Increasing the toughness of the floor for the warehouse makes it possible to protect the floor from damage caused by impact loads.

2. Resistance to chemical loads

Carbon dioxide corrosion of concrete is the main reason for the dusting of concrete floors. In this case, the free lime of the concrete base under the influence of carbon dioxide of air is converted into a microcalcite (pulverized calcium carbonate).

Because of the use of machines and mechanisms, contamination of the floor of the warehouse with combustive-lubricating materials and products of engine operation occurs. Industrial floors for the warehouse are under the damaging effect of chemicals, various liquids and salts. Therefore, the high chemical resistance of the coating - the requirement to protect the concrete base.

3. Compliance with standards

Industrial floors for a warehouse must comply with the provisions of Fire Safety and Sanitary-Hygienic Rules and Norms.

The methods and quality of cleaning can improve the level of floor hygiene in warehouses.

 

4. Decorative Properties

 

The appearance of the floor in the warehouse, its design and color solution, the need to mark up or logo - important floor parameters.

 

5. The Economics

 

The cost of constructing an industrial floor for a warehouse, the timing of its commissioning, durability, and maintainability, all this affects the economic characteristics.

 

In addition to the basic requirements, additional requirements may be imposed on industrial floors for a warehouse, which are determined by specific operating conditions. For example heat resistance, antistatic, increased chemical resistance, anti-slip properties. Providing additional requirements often leads to an increase in the cost of coverage.

 

The use of polymer coatings can satisfy almost all the requirements that are imposed on the industrial floors of the warehouse. Polymer floors are fireproof. The choice of polymer materials and coatings on their basis makes it possible to select the polymer coating floor with the properties necessary for a particular operation as efficiently as possible.

 

Among the polymer, floors are allocated polyurethane floors for the warehouse. Polyurethane coating is elastic, have increased wear resistance. Polyurethane impregnation for concrete penetrates deep into concrete at 2-6 mm. In this case, the top layer of concrete is saturated with polyurethane and is converted into a concrete polymer that completely seals and dusts the concrete surface, strengthens and strengthens the base.

 

On the basis of polyurethane, the following industrial floors for a warehouse can be made: impregnation of concrete (economical and effective way of protecting the base), thin-layer coating, highly filled (quartz-filled) polymer floors, arrange a floor for storage. The properties of the polyurethane material allow you to combine different types of coatings in separate sections of the floor of the warehouse, which allows you to significantly reduce the cost of the entire floor for the warehouse.

 

A simple technology of polymer coating and impregnation for concrete, high productivity of work, fast polymerization time allows shortening the time of repair and introduction of floor for the warehouse in working mode.

 

Concrete floorsarethe most effective solution for floor protection of the warehouse.

The choice of the applied flooring of the warehouse is best entrusted to BGSB India.

 

 
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Polished Concrete - 12 Advantages

Polished concrete has many advantages due to which it is preferred choice in Industrial Warehouses, Factories. Let us know some of the advantages of Polished Concrete Floors.

1. High strength.

2. Durability. The service life is practically determined by the service life of the building, where the floors are made. Approximately once every 7-10 years, a planned schedule is recommended, consisting of light polishing (the so-called update).

3. Polished concrete floor has high wear resistance.

4. Highest resistance to scratching.

5. Sufficiently high chemical resistance - withstands the impact of the widespread chemical "aggressors".

6. Dust Resistant.

7.Safety from the ecological point of view and hygiene. Absence of solvents and organic substances that decompose from temperature and time, which can emit odors and cause allergies. Also, the high pH of the concrete does not allow bacteria to multiply, fungi and mold accumulate.

8. Ease in cleaning and caring for the sexes. Polished floor is easy to clean, it is possible to use any detergents. Absolutely smooth and flat surface of the floor does not accumulate dirt and dust.

9. High decorative properties. Color solutions are possible, both by adding dyes to the concrete mix, and by selecting different fillers (in the case of terrazzo floors). The glossy surface of the floor has a high coefficient of light reflection and the effect of the mirror looks very attractive.

10. Economical Floors. Polished concrete has a fairly reasonable price, given that it is the finish coat with good decorative properties.

11. It is a finishing coat, does not require an additional device of polymer coatings.

12. Minimum costs for maintenance and service.

FM2 Flooring

 

 

 

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Concrete Industrial Laser flooring

Concrete industrial flooring UsingLaser Screed Technology

The Laser Screed Concrete Flooring guarantees inimitable quantitative and qualitative performance, as well as a considerable reduction in work time and costs. Through the automated system, laser screed machines ensure greater precision in the laying of the concrete, which takes place at the predetermined level, and a total uniformity of the final surface.

The optimization of the seasoning and compacting phase allows overcoming all the problems related to manual laying in terms of flatness, horizontality, reduction of joints and mechanical resistance.

Post-tensioned floors

The "post tension" is the most innovative solution in the field of industrial concrete flooring, a very high-performance procedure that provides for the replacement of the classic reinforcements with mono strand steel cables, treated and sheathed in concrete, and subsequently post-thesis through the use of hydraulic jacks. The result is monolithic floors with reduced thickness, without expansion joints and control, which ensure high flatness and a drastic reduction in maintenance costs, as well as a very high resistance to cracks and boats.

ITS designs and realizes post-tended flooring, following all the phases of engineering and drafting, in particular for environments characterized by the presence of high shelving, high load intensity, the circulation of vehicles with low impression wheels or requiring resin coatings.

Industrial Resin Floors

The resin industrial floors are made of specific coatings applied on different types of supports to give a particular aesthetic, hygienic and anti-dust effect, as well as a good practicality of use.

The wide range of offers related to this type of flooring (spatula, polyurethane-cement, multilayer, impregnation, self-leveling, thin film, ...) and the relative treatment and finishing possibilities (glossy, semi-gloss, ...) they make it particularly suitable for customized customizations.

ITS offers specific advice in the identification of the most suitable coatings, and in the realization of the entire implementation cycle.

Laser concrete Floors

Paving in molded concrete

The printed flooring has the same technical and structural characteristics of concrete with aesthetic finishes that produce the beauty of natural stone, ceramics, rock, bricks, and wood.

Floors in washed gravel

The washed gravel floors are of great scenic effect and extremely ductile. It is possible to obtain different chromatic shades and to realize geometric inlays with the most precious materials such as marble and natural stones.

Semi-elastic floors

 

Mixed paving obtained with cement, bitumen, and resin, suitable for exteriors subject to heavy traffic and logistics. The union of resin and bitumen allows eliminating 90% of the joints, reducing maintenance costs over time.

 

 

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Warehouse Floor Solutions Using Concrete

Choosing a concrete flooring solution for a warehouse - Professional Approaches

If you require concrete flooring in warehouses and hangars, then you need a clear understanding of the purpose of the floor for storage/ warehouse space. What should it be? Flat floor in the warehouse, this is the most important condition. In overwhelming cases, the floor surface in the warehouses is made of concrete, and if required, with a hardened top layer.

Such a floor is suitable for operation in non-food storage and factory stores.

The operating conditions of the warehouse floors are standard, both in heated warehouses and in cold hangars. However, warehouse concrete floors with topping should not be used if there is a possibility of chemical reagents and substances falling onto the floors, as well as prolonged contamination with oil products.super flat floors

Warehouse concrete floor can be either with the usual tolerances for the differences in the flatness of the surface of the storage floor.

It should be noted immediately that super flat floors for commodity terminals, warehouses and hangars have an order of magnitude higher than conventional concrete floors. This is due to more labor-intensive manufacturing processes, the installation of rail guide-forms strictly at given points. Equal warehouse floor, in this case, is the most important criterion. Superflat floors in warehouses , significantly slow down the speed of construction, but improve the quality of the concrete floor.

Jointless Concrete Floors

Floors in Warehouses

For warehouses for food purposes, there are certain requirements for hygiene standards. Hence, there are several ways of making concrete floors. The most budgetary is the application of de-dusting impregnation based on silicates, on a new concrete surface of the storage floor. A more expensive and qualitative method is the device of the storage floor, by applying modified polyurethane and epoxy impregnation to the concrete surface. In modern conditions, it is possible to apply to a fresh concrete floor.

The most expensive method of installing a storage floor is a polymer coating (polyurethane or epoxy). Such coatings are applied to concrete storage floors after at least 28 days after aging of concrete and residual moisture in it, no more than 4%, otherwise the polymer simply does not "stick" to concrete, will swell and flake. Also, the temperature in the warehouse is not less than + 10 degrees. Such floors are suitable for contact with chemical and petroleum substances.

Floors in storage freezers, after all, technological processes, can be covered with sheet aluminum.

The very processes of manufacturing industrial warehouse concrete floor can be found in other sections of the site.

Our team performs work on the installation of warehouse floors of any type. It is important only to choose the right solution for storage floors, without extra overpayments, but also unnatural savings.

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What Is industrial flooring

To the question - what is the industrial flooring ? - the first thing is an industrial structure - a large object, implying its production features. But this does not mean that the industrial floor is used exclusively at industrial construction sites. In the term "industrial", the importance is not so much that the floor is located on an industrial site - in a shop, in a warehouse, etc., but that the floor is operated in a "hard" - "industrial" way.

Capital construction can be carried out in the form of new construction, expansion, technical re-equipment, reconstruction or modernization of the enterprise includes all branches of construction and is divided into industrial, civil, transport, military construction, etc. Modern industrial floors are used in construction in all departments of capital construction and reconstruction of premises.

Industrial flooring is significantly different from the construction of other types. When implementing these facilities, modern technologies are used, operational loads are taken into account, floors must satisfy all the requirements of technological processes, ensure a long service life, reliable operation.

The industrial floor includes not only floors for production shops, warehouses, garages, but also floors at residential and public facilities: administrative institutions, shopping and entertainment and exhibition centers, consumer services, educational and medical institutions, and residential buildings. Floors of staircases and elevator halls of apartment houses are industrial floors, as they are subjected to abrasive loads, and accordingly should have a given strength set by all characteristics of the industrial floor. Simply put, the floors in the laundry, garage, hospital wards are industrial.

The industrial floor is widely used in transport construction, used in the open air - airports, open parking lots, sites, construction of highways, tunnels, bridges, subways, sea and river berths. Transport construction includes railway stations, depots and other transport buildings.

Of course, the warehouse floor , which is subjected to certain mechanical and chemical influences, of course, must meet the specified set of operational characteristics. In modern construction, floors meet many requirements, floors must fulfill a variety of performance characteristics. These include from traditional ones: dust-free, wear-resistant, chemical resistance to aggressive substances, high environmental friendliness; to specialized requirements: anti-slip, non-sparking, antistatic, special purity, deactivating, radar resistance, use in a wide temperature range and many others.

Civil residential construction is a branch of capital construction which is residential and public facilities. Public buildings intended for temporary residence of people include a whole range of facilities: trade enterprises, cultural and educational, health facilities, research and design, educational buildings, public service institutions, residential houses. The floor is a constructive part of the structure, perceives dynamic, various operational load. The use of industrial floors in housing construction fully meets all modern requirements.

In modern construction, the term industrial floor has acquired a broader, universal meaning. When designing buildings and various facilities for a specific purpose, all types of operation and loads must be taken into account in accordance with international standards. On objects where the high characteristics of the sexes play a significant role, the industrial floor is used.

polished concrete3

 

 

 

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Concrete Polishing With Hands - DIY

Polishing concrete by hands is something that can be done with hands using the appropriate tools and techniques. Here are steps to follow for polishing concrete with hands.

  1. The primary stage of preparation of the old floor involves cleaning the surface from old tiles, varnishes, paints and other contaminants by milling or by shot blasting.
  2. The next step eliminates potholes, cracks and deformation shrinkage seams. In order to level the surface, use epoxy mastic. It is required to create a surface of such smoothness that the working elements of the grinding machine (heads) do not cling to surface irregularities.
  3. Using diamond disks having a grain size of up to 37 microns (400 grit), the preliminary grinding is performed "coarse". If the surface is smooth, that is, milling and leveling the surface is not required, this operation is performed immediately. The floor of concrete is cleaned of dust and dirt.
  4. With the help of a special hardener, the surface is made of concrete. The components of the reinforcing agent begin to interact with calcium hydroxide, which is contained in the concrete. This makes it possible to strengthen the strength characteristics of concrete. After grinding, the floor surface is treated with an impregnator, for example, Densifier.
  5. At the last stage, grinding is carried out with discs having a grain size of more than 400 grit and final polishing of the concrete surface with diamond discs having a grain size of 10-5 μm (1500-3000 grit).

 

  color polished concrete

 

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