The concrete is essentially a cheap material, easy to maintain and durable when applied correctly in buildings, floors or coating. The material is the result of a mixture of cement, sand, water, and gravel, therefore, although resistant, it is usually subject to the appearance of cracks and cracks, which need to be repaired.
1- Incorrect Preparation
Each type of concrete should be prepared with the correct proportions of the materials: cement, sand, water, and stone crushed stone. Any measurement error can cause the concrete to undergo environmental and structural influences, leading to cracks and cracks - as well as being extremely dangerous especially when used in supporting structures such as pillars and bases.
For countertops, for example, the recipe recommended by experts is 50 kilos of cement, 8 ½ cans of sand, 11 ½ cans of stone and two cans of water - where the can should measure 18 liters.
2 - Infiltration
Leaks in the hydraulic network of a building eventually cause water to penetrate the concrete - which causes corrosion of the iron over time. Thus, cracks and cracks in the material begin to appear, which can even lead to rupture if the necessary repairs are not made. If the concrete is part of the pillars or foundations of a construction, repairs must be provided urgently, with the work of qualified professionals to ensure the safety of the site.
3 - Excess Moisture
Adding more water than recommended when preparing the cement mass and weakening the concrete's resistance can cause the moisture to cause the surface to expand. With this, cracks and cracks appear - in addition to making the application of the concrete irregular, favoring other problems in the construction.
4 - Retraction by Drying
Just as infiltrations and excess moisture can favor the appearance of cracks and cracks in the concrete, the lack of necessary moisture causes so-called drying retraction. This is because by losing moisture, the concrete shrinks and cracks. The error is usually in the preparation of the cement, where the mixture receives less water than the ideal. Another fact to consider is not proper curing of the concrete, which must be watered with abundant water in the first days of life and avoid that the solar exposition or excessive heat of the environment, causes the dryness of the freshly thrown mass in the form.
5 - Failure to Place
Poorly planned buildings and works, where concrete elements are applied and dumped inappropriately, also promote the formation of cracks and cracks in the surface. It is common for concrete to exhibit these problems when used on uneven surfaces of uncompacted soils and wet soils without adequate preparation. Concrete may, for example, begin to crack in the lower, thicker regions where excess weight is impinged and influenced by excessive moisture.
6 - Aggressive Agents
Many corrosive substances can favor the aggression to the concrete, facilitating the formation of cracks and cracks. The use of some products for cleaning can also favor the wear of the concrete, facilitating the appearance of cracks, such as undiluted bleach in water and materials with excess salt or caustic soda. Beach and coastal areas the aggressiveness of the environment with salinity can favor steel corrosion causing the "swelling" of the fittings and the appearance of cracks in the concrete in places with little thickness of concrete cover on the iron armors.
7 - Overloads
The performance of excess weight beyond that planned by the engineer, when designing the building structures project, can cause cracks in the material and risks to the safety of the work. Concrete areas are subject to the loads that produce tensile or compressive forces in both steel and concrete due to the action of loading on the slabs as well as the weight of the elements of the reinforced concrete itself, floor coverings and walls.
On a single-story house built with a cover slab, in any case, the construction of a second floor cannot be added without the engineer responsible for the structure design verifying that the stability of the work is maintained with more overload on the slabs, beams, pillars, and foundations.
The most loaded pillar of a single-story house receives a load of 14 to 16 tons depending on the gaps between pillars and the type of slab. Already in a house with two floors the pillar more loaded will be receiving loads of more than 30 tons in certain situations. And in these cases a work without the necessary reinforcements, the appearance of cracks can evolve rapidly to the collapse of the structure, causing serious risk to the safety of people.
If the goal is to build the second floor in the future, you should already consider second-floor loads in the initial construction of foundations, pillars, beams, and slabs that will support the second floor.
8 - Environmental Stress
Factors such as rains, sunshine, earthquakes and other natural phenomena may favor the wear of the cement and the appearance of cracks and cracks over time. For this reason, the preparation, placement and proper maintenance of concrete are extremely important. Another factor is due to the fatigue of concrete materials adhering to the steel, and that can suffer small deformations over the years, resulting in cracks or cracks.